Rules of preparing for diagnostic tests « FSBSI "IEM"

Федеральное государственное бюджетное научное учреждение

"Институт экспериментальной медицины"

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FEDERAL STATE BUDGETARY SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTION

INSTITUTE OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE

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Rules of preparing for diagnostic tests

Preparation for the urine test

  • Use only special plastic disposable containers, collecting urine. Indicate the name on the label, date of birth, date of collection of the material.
  • It is not recommended to drink alcohol on the eve of the study (10-12 hours); spicy, salty foods; food products that change the color of urine (beets, carrots, citrus fruits, multivitamins).
  • On the eve and before collecting urine, intense physical exertion should be avoided.
  • Exclude the use of diuretic drugs, it is undesirable to drink more or less than usual.
  • Before analysis, make a thorough toilet of the external genitalia.
  • It is undesirable to take the urine test for women during menstruation.
  • It is recommended to take an analysis after 5-7 days after the cystoscopy.
  • A morning urine sample is collected immediately after sleep for the routine urinalysis.
  • Only the average portion of morning urine is recommended for the urine analysis according to Nechiporenko (diagnosis of latent inflammatory process).
  • Collection of daily urine according to Nechiporenko (i.e. all urine collected in 24 hours): the first morning portion is removed. Collect all other servings (including the morning portion of the next day) in a large container, store in a dark, cool place. Measure the quantity, mix thoroughly, pour into another container and deliver to the laboratory. Indicate the amount of urine in milliliters allocated per day, height and weight.
  • For analysis according to Zimnitsky (study of the concentration function of the kidneys) – at 6 in the morning the bladder is emptied and this portion is poured. From 9 am, every 3 hours, collect 8 servings in different containers (9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 3, 6 hours). On each container write the date, time of collection and the number of servings of urine must be indicated. Store in a dark and cool place.
  • Reberg test (glomerular filtration rate assessment) – collect urine in 24 hours (see daily urine collection). It is necessary to donate blood to determine creatinine at the end of the collection.
  • Urine for the microbiological examination should be collected in a sterile container. The first 15 ml of urine are not used for analysis. The subsequent 5-10 ml should be collected in a sterile container, tightly closed with a lid and delivered to the laboratory within 1.5-2 hours. It is allowed to store biomaterial in the refrigerator at a temperature of +2 + 4 ° C for no more than 3-4 hours. The results of urine culture may be unreliable, if urine is delivered to the laboratory later than the specified time. Urine collection should be carried out before the start of drug treatment and not earlier than 5 days after the course of treatment.

Preparing for the blood test

  • Blood sampling for research should be done in the morning, on an empty stomach. There should be an interval of 8-12 hours between eating and giving blood. Tea, coffee, juice are considered as food. It is allowed to drink water only.
  • It is not recommended to use on the eve of the study (for 1-2 days) – alcohol, fatty foods.
  • You should refrain from smoking, drinking of juice, tea or coffee. It is allowed to drink still water 1 hour before blood donation.
  • Intense physical exertion, emotional arousal should be avoided on the eve and before blood donating.
  • You should not donate blood after physiotherapeutic procedures, ultrasound, massage, x-ray examination.
  • Blood for hormones, ACTH, cortisol is desirable to donate in the morning.
  • Blood for the study of sex hormones in women is donated taking into account the phase of the menstrual cycle and the recommendations of the attending physician.
  • Sexual intercourse and heat exposure (sauna, hot bath) should be excluded for the donating blood for prolactin.
  • Analysis for PSA (prostate-specific antigen) – not earlier than 10 days after any mechanical effect on the prostate (rectal ultrasound, rectal finger examination).

Preparing for the fecal test

  • It is allowed using only special plastic disposable containers (write your name, date of birth, date of collection of material on the label).
  • Gregersen reaction (‘hidden blood’): before analysis, exclude meat, liver and all products containing iron (apples, Bulgarian pepper, spinach, white beans, green onions), iron preparations from the diet for three days.
  • It is not recommended to take laxatives, activated charcoal, or use rectal suppositories the day before the test.
  • Preparation for the collection of a smear from the urethra and scraping for sexually transmitted infections
  • It is not recommended to urinate in the morning. It is recommended to arrive for the test with night urine. In extreme cases, refrain from urinating for 5-6 hours.

Preparing for the prostate juice test

  • Refrain from sexual intercourse 3-4 days.
  • Preparation for ultrasound of the abdominal organs (liver, pancreas, gall bladder, vessels of the abdominal cavity)
  • Exclude from the diet black bread, milk, peas, beans, fresh vegetables and fruits, sweet foods and carbonated drinks 3 days before the study.
  • Take 2 capsules of ‘Espumisan’ 3 times a day the day before the study.
  • Take 2 capsules of ‘Espumisan’ (not required to drink) on the morning of the day of the study.
  • Do not eat, chew chewing gums and smoke 8 hours before the study.
  • Ultrasound is performed on an empty stomach. You should have a towel with you.

Duplex examination of the vessels of the kidneys and abdominal cavity

  • Exclude gas-forming foods from the diet: raw vegetables and fruits, legumes, sauerkraut, juices, black bread, dairy products, carbonated drinks for 2-3 days.
  • ARTERIES: start taking 2 capsules of ‘Espumisan’  3 times a day, 1 day before the study. COME FOR THE TEST STRICTLY ON AN EMPTY STOMACH !!! Drinking water is not allowed too!
  • VEINS: start taking 2 capsules of ‘Espumisan’ 3 times a day and 4 capsules in the morning on the day of the study, 1 day before the study
  • If your research is in the morning, you should come strictly on an empty stomach, if research takes place in the evening, then the period of hunger should be at least 8 hours.
  • Conducting cleansing enemas is not recommended, as this leads to an increase in the phenomena of flatulence.

Duplex examination of the veins of the lower extremities and the aortic-iliac segment

  • Exclude gas-forming foods from the diet for 2-3 days: raw vegetables and fruits, legumes, sauerkraut, juices, black bread, dairy products, carbonated drinks.
  • Start taking 2 capsules of ‘Espumisan’ 3 times a day, 1 day before the study and 4 capsules in the morning on the day of the study .
  • The study is carried out on an empty stomach after an independent stool or 6 hours of fasting.

X-ray preparation for lumbar spine

  • Choose one of three options:
  • Cleansing enemas in the evening before the study.
  • Fortrans (diluted with water, according to the instructions) is taken on the evening before the study.
  • In the evening, 6-7 tablets of activated carbon.
  • In all three options:
  • The last meal is on the day before the study.
  • In the evening do not eat.
  • On the morning of the study day, a light breakfast is required.
  • Limit the intake of products that contribute to gas formation (flour, legumes, etc.).
  • It is allowed to drink weak black tea.
  • Green tea is not allowed.

Preparation for the endoscopic examination of the colon (colonoscopy)

  • It isn’t allowed to eat: meat, black bread, fresh fruits and vegetables, herbs, beans, peas, mushrooms, berries, seeds, nuts, jam with pits, including with small grapes, kiwi 3 days before the study.
  • Do not take activated charcoal.
  • It is allowed to eat: broth, boiled meat, fish, chicken, cheese, white bread, butter, cookies, jelly, compote.
  • The patient should take laxatives, which he usually uses for constipation,.
  • Only liquid food is allowed (broth, jelly, juice without pulp) on the eve of the study.

Fortrans, Fleet or Endofalk are used to cleanse the intestines.

  • Instruction for using of the drug Fortrans:
  • Dissolve the contents of 1 sachet in 1 liter of water. It is impossible to change the proportions (reduce the amount of liquid). It is necessary to take the prepared solution at the rate of at least 1 sachet per 15-20 kg of body weight.
  • Drink the solution gradually, 1 liter for 1 hour, in a glass for 15 minutes in separate sips.
  • Painless loose stools will start 1 hour later after drinking the solution.
  • Bowel movement will result in the release of a clear or slightly colored liquid 2-3 hours after the last dose of Fortrans.
  • Admission of ‘Fortrans’ must be completed 3-4 hours before the start of the study.
  • The solution has a sweetish flavor. ‘Fortrans’ can be drunk chilled or squeezed into a solution a slice of citrus to improve the taste.
  • Instructions for use of the drug ‘Endofalk’:
  • The method of preparation of the drug varies depending on the time of the study.
  • If the study is in morning:
  • A light lunch is recommended before 2 hours before preparation for the test. The next meal is recommended only after your research.
  • At 11 a.m.: dissolve 2 packets of ‘Endofalk’ in 1 liter of warm boiled water. Prepare 3-4 liters of solution and refrigerate.
  • At 16:00: start taking a solution of 200-300 ml for 3-4 hours. It is required to drink a glass of solution every 10-15 minutes.
  • The loose stools will start after taking the drug 1-2 hours later. Bowel cleansing will end 1-3 hours after taking the last dose of the drug.
  • If the study is in the evening:
  • A light dinner is recommended before 2 hours before preparation for the test. The next meal is recommended only after your research.
  • At 21:00: dissolve two packets of the drug ‘Endofalk’ in one liter of warm boiled water on the eve of the day of the study. Prepare 3-4 liters of solution and refrigerate.
  • At 8 am, start taking a solution of 200-300 ml for 3-4 hours. It is required to drink a glass of solution every 10-15 minutes.
  • The loose stools will start after taking the drug 1-2 hours later. Bowel cleansing will end 1-3 hours after taking the last dose of the drug.

Preparation for endoscopic examination of the stomach (gastroscopy)

  • On the eve of the study, the last meal should be no later than 20:00.
  • On the day of the study, do not eat, drink or smoke.

Preparation for examination by a coloproctologist

  • It is recommended to cleanse the colon using one of the following methods, to conduct a study of the colon during the initial consultation of the proctologist:
  • It is needed to put a cleansing enema, carried out no later than 2 hours before examination by a proctologist, usually twice.
  • The drug ‘Microlax’ in tubes in the rectum is carried out no later than 2 hours before examination by a proctologist, usually twice with an interval of 1.5 -2 hours. (single use is possible).
  • Laxatives such as ‘Fleet-phospho soda’ or ‘Forlax’ according to the scheme. In the absence of the ability to cleanse the intestines, you can get an initial consultation without preparation.

X-ray preparation

Chest Fluorography

  • The patient must fill out two statistical coupons with passport data and go to the fluorography office before the study.
  • The patient must remove the upper body (to the waist) from clothing, remove jewelry that is at the research level.
  • The patient must inform the medical staff of the fluorographic office about the past diseases, operations on the chest organs, the presence of foreign bodies in the study area.

Chest x-ray

  • Radiography may be performed while the patient is standing, sitting or lying down, depending on the assigned study. Metal jewelry or fasteners that will be visible on the x-ray and distort the results should not fall into the irradiated area.

X-ray of the spine

  • Contraindications to the study: pregnancy, an X-ray study with barium suspension during the last four days, the patient’s inability to be stationary even for a short period of time, obesity (pictures with excess body weight are uninformative and fuzzy).
  • It is necessary to cleanse the intestines before the study,(intestinal gases are layered and do not pass x-rays; as a result, the overall image is smeared); it is especially important if an x-ray of the lumbar spine is planned: the preparation includes a cleansing enema.
  • It is recommended to follow a diet that excludes gas-forming products a few days before radiography;
  • It is additionally recommended to take enzyme preparations and activated carbon after meals.
  • The study is carried out on an empty stomach.
  • The patient must remove all the jewelry and undress to the waist before the diagnosis.

X-ray examination of the stomach and duodenum

  • Contraindications: ulcerative bleeding, serious condition of the patient, pregnancy.
  • The study is performed on an empty stomach. It is recommended not to eat and drink for 8-10 hours before the study.
  • It is recommended to follow a diet to obtain objective data within 3 days before the procedure. Products causing gas formation (legumes, brown bread, fatty, fried, smoked foods, fruits, vegetables) should be excluded. It is recommended to eat low-fat boiled meat (chicken, beef), low-fat fish, white stale bread, cereals on the water, eggs.

A cleansing enema is necessary on the eve of the examination.

  • Intravenous urography (X-ray examination of the kidneys, bladder and urethra)
  • It is needed to exclude gas-forming foods from the diet for 2-3 days: raw vegetables and fruits, legumes, sauerkraut, juices, black bread, dairy products, carbonated drinks.
  • It is recommended to have a light breakfast in the morning before 2-3 hours before the test. Patient must drink only non-sparkling water.
  • Contraindications: excess iodine in the body or intolerance to substances containing iodine, hyperthyroidism, for women – menstruation.
  • It is not recommended to conduct a study during pregnancy !!!

Functional diagnostics

Treadmill test (bicycle ergometry, ECG stress)

  • Have a doctor’s referral, the latest ECG with transcript, Echocardiography and Holter (if any).
  • Check with the referring doctor in advance whether it is possible to take medications in the background of the study or whether it is necessary to cancel them.
  • It is recommended to have a light breakfast in the morning before 2-3 hours before the study. Patient must drink only non-sparkling water.
  • All the patients must be ready to bring along: sportswear (comfortable trousers, a T-shirt), comfortable sports shoes, a towel.
  • Men should take a razor (you may need to shave your chest hair for better contact of the electrodes with the skin).

Spirography

  • You must come to the study on an empty stomach or not earlier than 2 hours after eating.
  • Do not carry out inhalation on the day of the study, if an inhaler is used.
  • Do not take bronchodilators (take with you)
  • CONTRAINDICATIONS: temperature, high pressure.
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