Deputy Head of the Department
Abdurasulova Irina Nikolaevna, кандидат биологических наук
Phone: (812) 234-94-75
Mukhin Valery Nikolaevich, кандидат медицинских наук
The Department consists of:
- Laboratory of Neurobiology of Integrative Brain Functions
- Laboratory of Psychophysiology of Emotions
- Laboratory of Neurochemistry
History of I.P. Pavlov Department of Physiology
The Department of Physiology was organized one of the first as part of the Imperial Institute of Experimental Medicine in 1891, and from the very beginning it was headed by Professor I.P. Pavlov, who later became a Nobel Prize laureate in 1904, became an academician in 1908 and an internationally recognized scientist. I.P. Pavlov proceedings are rightfully considered as classical, which had opened new pages in almost all major sections of Physiology and Medicine.
The main distinguishing feature of I.P. Pavlov’s art is a theory of Nervism. The main idea of this theory is that nervous system plays a decisive role in regulating the functional state and activity of all organs and systems of the body. The Department carried out studies under his leadership, which enriched world science with data on the functioning of the digestive tract, opened conditioned reflexes, substantiated experimental modeling of Neurosis and created the theory of higher nervous activity (behavior), which until now underlies scientific ideas in Physiology, Neurology, Psychophysiology, Psychiatry and Psychology. However, not only I.P. Pavlov took part in the creation of the Russian Psycho-neurological Scientific School, he was helped by his closest associates as D.L. Glinsky, S.G. Wolfson and A.T. Snarsky and his an outstanding students P.K. Anokhin, E.A. Astratyan, B.P. Babkin, D.A. Biryukov, K.M. Bykov, V.S. Deryabin, I.V. Zavadsky, N.I. Krasnogorsk, A.N. Krestovikov, P.S. Kupalov, L.A. Orbeli, N.A. Rozhansky, V.V. Savich, G.V. Folbort, I.S. Tsitovich and others who later formed the elite of the domestic Physiology.
After I.P. Pavlov’s death in 1936, Academician of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR P.S. Kupalov became the head of the Department (1937–1964); academician of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR M.M. Khananashvili became the head of the Department (1965–1976); corresponding member of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR G.A. Vartanyan was the head of the Department too (1976–1995). Professor V.M. Klimenko has been heading the Department since 1995.
The main areas of research
The main focus of research is on the connection between the body and the environment, the processing of sensory information, its significance for social experience and, more generally, the normal and pathological mechanisms of the central nervous system, and, in particular, the mechanisms of cognitive functions and integrative brain activity.
There are also works in the sphere of studying the mechanisms of disorders, which underlying the regulation of the central nervous system response to adverse environmental factors, the formation of neurodegenerative diseases, mental disorders and minimal brain dysfunctions.
There is a search for new treatment strategies that can influence cell differentiation processes, stimulate neurogenesis and normalize trophic functions in the central nervous system in socially significant diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, Ischemic and Traumatic brain injuries, Attention deficit and Hyperactivity disorder in children.
Main Academic Results
The connection between the main pathogenic processes that trigger the death of nerve cells in various neurodegenerative diseases: neuroinflammation, excitotoxicity and oxidative stress.
It is proved that the proinflammatory cytokines secreted by activated lymphocytes and monocytes during inflammatory processes of any etiology act in the brain mediate the central components of the body’s response to activation of the immune system, defining the standard set of patient’s behavioral responses, which is called ‘sickness behavior’ in international literature.
It is proved that a moderate increase in the level of IL-1 at the critical time of early postnatal ontogenesis leads to long-term (detected in adult animals) changes in research behavior and various types of memory.
The presence of neurodegeneration is proved in the autoimmune CNS pathology. The conjugation of the action of inflammatory and excitotoxic factors is shown, the involvement of glutamate receptors in this process is revealed, methods of neuroprotection using NMDA and / or AMPA receptor blockers and suppression of the hyperactivation of the calpain system using calpastatin mimetics are developed.
Priority data were obtained on the protective and stress-limiting properties of the galanin neuropeptide. Allelic variants of the galanin gene in Wistar rats and peculiarities of the reaction to stress and the administration of neurotoxins in animals with differences in the structure of the promoter region of the galanin gene were revealed.
New mechanisms of calpain involvement in the regulation of the activity of the dopaminergic system in the normal state and during the development of Parkinson’s disease were identified.
It is proved that cognitive and emotional disturbances during Alzheimer’s disease can be associated with an increase in the phase release of dopamine in the shell of the adjacent nucleus and its simultaneous weakening in the dorsal striatum.
It was shown that the experience of a single psychological trauma caused by a real threat to life leads to long-lasting structural and functional disorders in the brain, inhibition of proliferative stem cell proliferation in the brain, systemic impairment of lipid metabolism by atherogenic type, motor and emotional disorders in the offspring. The possibility of correcting disorders was identified after mental and physical trauma using vasopressin preparations is shown.
The International Cooperation
Since 2004, the I.P. Pavlov Department of Physiology participates in the organization of the major annual international conference on Neurobiology and Psychiatry ‘Stress and behavior’ in conjunction with the International Stress and Behavior Society.
Theses of the research assistants of the department over the past 5 years
- Beznin G.V. Structural and functional foundations of behavioral dis-orders in the model of post-traumatic stress disorder in rats // PhD the-sis, Specialty: Sciences code 03.03.01 – physiology; 03.03.04 Cell Bi-ology, Cytology, and Histology, St.Petersburg. 2014.
Academic titles received by the research assistants of the department over the past 5 years:
Patents obtained by the research assistants of the department over the past 5 years:
Technologies obtained by the research assistants of the department over the past 5 years:
- Авалиани Т. В., Быкова А. В., Цикунов С. Г. Технология профилактики стрессорной реакции при психогенной травме // Информ. реестр нов. технологий профилактики, диагностики, лечения и реабилитации ФГБНУ «ИЭМ». Рег. № 17001-п от 10.11.2017.
- Цикунов С. Г., Белокоскова С. Г. Технология коррекции недостаточности мозгового кровообращения посредством нейропептида аргинин-вазопрессина в условиях стентирования мозговых артерий // Информ. реестр нов. технологий профилактики, диагностики, лечения и реабилитации ФГБНУ «ИЭМ». Рег. № 557/15-112-л от 24.12.2015. Свид-во о регистрации нов. технологии № НТ-00039 выдано в 2016 г.
- Белокоскова С. Г., Цикунов С. Г. Технология восстановления чувствительности после инсультов и травм мозга // Информ. реестр нов. технологий профилактики, диагностики, лечения и реабилитации ФГБНУ «ИЭМ». Рег. № 557-15001-л от 15.04.2015. Свид-во о регистрации нов. технологии № НТ-0034 выдано 21.12.2015.
- Белокоскова С. Г., Цикунов С. Г. Технология лечения расстройств речи у больных с афазией // Информ. реестр нов. технологий профилактики, диагностики, лечения и реабилитации ФГБНУ «ИЭМ». Рег. № 557-1405-л от 09.09.2014. Свид-во о регистрации нов. технологии № НТ-0007 выдано 12.02.2015.